Repair and service Audi A8 in body D2 with 1994 for 1999 of release.
1. Car operation
2. Maintenance service
3. Petrol engines of 2,8 l
4. Petrol engines of 3,7 and 4,2 l
5. Diesel engines of 2,5 l
6. Diesel engines of 3,3 l
7. Systems of ignition and injection of fuel of petrol engines
8. System of release of the fulfilled gases of cars with petrol engines
9. The power supply system of diesel engines
10. System of prestarting heating of diesel engines
11. System of release of the fulfilled gases of cars with diesel engines
12. Greasing system
12.1. Recommendations about application of engine oils
12.2. The oil pallet and the oil pump of the diesel engine of 2,5 l
12.3. The oil pallet and the oil pump of the diesel engine of 3,3 l
12.4. The oil pallet and the oil pump of the petrol engine of 2,8 l
12.5. The oil pump of petrol engines of 3,7 and 4,2 l
13. Cooling system
14. Coupling
15. A transmission
16. Shaft of a drive of forward wheels
17. Features of a design of transmission of all-wheel drive cars
18. A suspension bracket
19. Wheels and tyres
20. A steering
21. Brake system
22. A body
23. Heating and air-conditioning system
24. An electric equipment
25. Electric schemes
 










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12.1. Recommendations about application of engine oils


Fig. 6–1. Viscosity of engine oils




The general data
In cars the system of greasing of the engine under pressure is applied. Oil from the oil pallet through the mesh filter and the filter of thin clearing moves under pressure the oil pump. The perepusknoj valve in the oil pump supports necessary pressure in system of greasing of the engine. If pressure in system of greasing of the engine exceeds certain level, opens перепускной the valve and an oil part flows down back in the oil pallet.
Passing through the oil filter, the cleared oil arrives in the main oil highway. In it the gauge of emergency pressure drop of oil which, including a control lamp in a combination of devices, signals about low pressure of oil is established. In the oil filter is перепускной the valve through which in case of strong pollution of the filter crude oil arrives at once in an oil highway.
From the trunk main on channels oil under pressure moves for greasing of radical bearings of a cranked shaft and further through channels in cranked to a shaft to шатунным to bearings. For cooling of pistons oil through atomizers is sprayed on the bottom part of pistons.
On channels oil moves to a head of the block of cylinders for greasing of bearings of camshafts and in hydraulic pushers.

Viscosity of oil
Viscosity (fig. 6-1) characterises fluidity of oil which depends on temperature. In process of increase in temperature oil becomes more fluid. It worsens ability of oil to сцепляемости and stability to maintain high contact pressure. At cooling oil gets denser, fluidity decreases and the internal friction increases. It is necessary to apply engine oil of optimum viscosity which depends on a design, an operating mode, degree of deterioration, an ambient temperature and other factors to the engine.
At start-up of the cold engine oil should be sufficiently liquid excessively not to overload the engine. Besides, after start-up it should get into all places of greasing faster.
Viscosity of oil is expressed in standard units – degrees of viscosity SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers – Association of automobile engineers of the USA), for example SAE 30, SAE 10. High indicator SAE corresponds to dense oil, low – characterises liquid oil.

All-weather oils
In engines of cars it is preferable to use all-weather oils. Advantage of all-weather oils consists that they do not need to be chosen seasonally. Them produce on the basis of liquid oil (type 10W). In нагретом a condition this oil is stabilised by a so-called thickener that provides corresponding lubricant qualities of oil at various temperature. At use of all-weather oil it is necessary to apply modern marks with a wide temperature range of viscosity, for example SAE 10W–40, 15W–50.
Letter W (winter – winter) in designation SAE characterises suitability of use of oil during the winter period.

Oil with the raised lubricant properties
Oils with the raised lubricant properties represent all-weather oils which, besides other additives, contain the substances reducing factor of a friction. Application of such oils reduces the expense of fuel on 2 %. By their manufacture special initial components (synthetic oils) are used.

Classes of viscosity and range of use of oil
As ranges of use of next classes SAE are blocked, it is possible not to pay attention to short-term temperature fluctuations. Mixing of oils of various classes of viscosity if it is required доливка oils is supposed, and the surrounding temperature any more does not correspond to a class of viscosity of the oil which have been filled in in the engine.
At air temperature more low–20 С for a long time it is recommended to fill in oil SAE 5W–20.
Engine oils of CD which the manufacturer designates as oil for diesel engines, are unsuitable for petrol engines. There are the oils which application is possible in engines of two types, in this case both designations are specified in capacities with oil, for example SG/CD.
It is impossible to enter into oil additional additives, irrespective of their kind and appointment.

Engine oils
For modern engines it is necessary to use only oils HD with the raised lubricant properties improved at the expense of various additives. They improve anticorrosive protection, the best change of viscosity washing and dissolving action, interfere with oxidation and formation of slags. Washing and dissolving additives not only reduce formation of the rests in the engine, but also ability these rests and other pollution in engine oil simultaneously possess to dissolve and hold in a suspension so that they left together with merged oil at its replacement.
Quality of oils HD is defined on system API (American Petroleum Institut). The European manufacturers also adhere to this system.
Marks of oils designate two letters. The first letter characterises a scope: S (servise) are intended for petrol engines; With (сommercial) are intended for diesel engines.
The second letter defines oil mark in alphabetic order.
Premium oils on classification API are SG for petrol engines and CD for diesel engines.

Petrol engines
And – all-weather oils with the raised antifrictional properties, specification VW 500 00.
In – all-weather oils, specification VW 501 01.
  – All-weather oils, specifications API–SF or SG.

Diesel engines
And – all-weather oils with the raised antifrictional properties, specification VW 500 00 (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in a mix with oil, specification VW 505 00).
In – all-weather oils, specification VW 505 00 (it is unlimited for all diesel engines).
  – All-weather oils, API–CD specification (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in a special emergency for доливки).
 – All-weather oils, specification VW 501 01 (for diesel engines with a turbo-supercharging only in a mix with oil, specification VW 505 00).

The oil expense
The oil expense is the quantity of oil necessary for maintenance of process of combustion топливовоздушной to a mix. The expense of oil does not include loss of oil because of негерметичности system of greasing of the engine. The oil expense is defined by temperature and pressure at engine work. The oil expense is influenced also by service conditions of the car and a driving manner. The maximum expense of oil–1 l on 1000 km of run of the car.

The prevention
Do not fill in engine oil above a label max on the index (probeе) as not burnt down oil can get to system of release and damage каталитический neutralizer.

Specifications
Pressure of oil (at temperature not more low 80 С) on single to a course / at 3000 mines-1, a bar:
Petrol engines of 2,8 l                                          1-2/3-5
Petrol engines of 3,7 and 4,2 l                                 1-2,5/3-5
Diesel engines of 2,5 l                                            0,8/2,0

The inhaling moments, Н*м
The diesel engine of 2,5 l

The bottom section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Pipe plum of a cooling liquid to the pallet
10
Stopper oil plum
25
Stopper plum of a cooling liquid to a pipe
10
The oil pump to the block of cylinders
22
Delivery маслопровод to the oil pump
10
Delivery маслопровод to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Маслопровод a balancing shaft to the oil pump
10
Маслопровод to an arm of a balancing shaft
10
Intermediate asterisk to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Partition to an arm of a balancing shaft
10
Asterisk of the oil pump to the oil pump
22
Asterisk of a balancing shaft
45
Arm of the oil filter to the block of cylinders
10
The mechanical valve of system рециркуляции the fulfilled gases to an inlet collector
22
System pipe рециркуляции the fulfilled gases to a transitive element
22
System pipe рециркуляции to forward section of an inlet collector
10
Pipe of giving of oil to an arm of the oil filter
10
The diesel engine of 3,3 l

The bottom section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Stopper oil plum
50
Collar of fastening of a hose
2
The top section of the oil pallet to the block of cylinders
14
Arm of the pump of the amplifier of a steering and the conditioner compressor  
40
The pump of the amplifier of a steering to an arm
22
Pipe of system of cooling to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Directing pipe for the index (probeа) oil level to a head of the block of cylinders
10
Chain asterisk to the oil pump
34,5
The tension device of a chain to the oil pump
10
Bolts of fastening of the oil pump
30
Успокоитель in the oil pallet to the top section of the oil pallet
10
Arm of the oil filter:

M8 – 22
22
M10 – 45
45
Stopper маслосливного apertures in a cover of the oil filter
10
The gauge of emergency pressure drop of oil F1 to an arm of the oil filter
25
The petrol engine of 2,8 l

The bottom section of the pallet to the top section of the pallet
10
Stopper маслосливного apertures
40
Air line to an inlet collector
22
The oil heat exchanger to the top section of the oil pallet
30
The top section of the oil pallet to the block of cylinders
10
The top section of the oil pallet to a transmission:

Bolts M – 8
25
Bolts M – 10
45
Pipe маслоприемника to the oil pump
10
Support of the jack of a twisting moment to the top section of the oil pallet
42
The oil pump to the block of cylinders:

Bolts M6
10
Bolt M20
30
Tension roller of a gear belt to the oil pump
22



12. Greasing system

12.2. The oil pallet and the oil pump of the diesel engine of 2,5 l