8.2. Katalitichesky neutralizer
On all cars are established каталитические neutralizers for reduction of quantity of the harmful substances which are thrown out in atmosphere with fulfilled gases.
To the case of neutralizer executed from stainless steel, inlet and final cones with branch pipes and fixing flanges, and also теплоотражатели, keeping a ceramic covering are welded. All internal volume of the case is occupied by a ceramic porous monolith – the catalyst fixed by rings or a grid from stainless steel. The catalyst represents the filter in which all internal and external surface of the time contacting to gases, is covered by very thin layer of an alloy which contains platinum, rhodium and a palladium. The porous catalyst has the big area of the surface covered with this alloy from very expensive metals that basically and defines the high price каталитических neutralizers.
In нейтролизаторе there is a reaction in which result potentially dangerous hydrocarbon and окись carbon in the fulfilled gases turn to safe gases and water steam.
On all models with neutralizer the power supply system fuel – the closed type, that is on the basis of a signal from the ljambda-gauge established in system of release, the management block constantly optimises structure топливовоздушной mixes. Depending on the oxygen maintenance in the fulfilled gases the ljambda-gauge induces pressure from 0,1 In (the high maintenance of oxygen, a poor mix) to 0,9 In (the low maintenance of the oxygen, a rich mix). On the basis of this data the engine management block changes time of opening of atomizers and a fuel parity in топливовоздушной mixes. That there was a full combustion of a gas mixture and in the fulfilled gases there were no harmful substances, on 14,7 weight parts of air 1 part of fuel should have.
Katalitichesky neutralizer works effectively at temperature +300 … +800 °С.
Эксплуатаци I of cars with catalytic neutralizer
Neutralizer is a reliable and simple device which does not require service. That term of its service was maximum, it is necessary to observe following requirements.
Do not use этилированный gasoline in the car equipped catalytic with neutralizer as lead will cover precious metals in a catalyst lattice, reducing their efficiency and as a result will put out of action neutralizer.
Always contain ignition and food systems in good repair.
Do not maintain the car with faulty system of ignition before malfunction elimination.
If at engine work the control lamp of engine management lights up, it is necessary to address as soon as possible on servicing deport. If the control system of the engine except increase in the expense of fuel and deterioration of dynamic characteristics of the engine can fail каталитический neutralizer is damaged .
Do not start up the engine by means of towage.
Do not switch off ignition at high frequency of rotation of the engine.
Do not use an additive to fuel and engine oil as they can contain the substances, capable to damage каталитический neutralizer.
Do not use the car if from an exhaust pipe the smoke of dark blue colour is allocated.
After a stop of the engine release system long time continues to radiate heat, therefore it is necessary to avoid a car parking on a grass and dry leaves.
Remember that neutralizer is fragile, therefore avoid blows at its removal or other elements of system of release.
Service life catalytic neutralizer on well adjusted car makes 100-160 thousand in km of run of the car.